|After Erich Fromm received his Ph.D. in 1922 from the universities of Frankfurt and Heidelburg, he studied psychoanalysis at the University of Munich and at the Psychoanalytic Institute of Berlin. Associated with the Institute for Social Research from 1929 to 1932, Fromm was influenced by Marxist thought as well as by the work of Sigmund Freud, but he eventually broke with Freud, giving greater weight to the influence of social and economic forces on personality. Fromm came to the United States in 1934 during the rise of Nazism, and he served on the faculties of several universities, including Columbia and Yale, and also chaired the Department of Psychology at National Autonomous University of Mexico, Medical School, Frontera, Mexico. His 1941 work on totalitarianism, "Escape from Freedom", has become a classic, and "The Art of Loving" was a best-selling book in the 1960s. Fromm brought social thought to psychology, and sought to apply psychology so as to improve society.
|Son of an English administrator stationed in India (in the "Opium Department"), Orwell (born Eric Blair) returned to Henley-on-Thames in England with his mother when he was 2. He eventually attended Eton, becoming a somewhat rebellious boy who questioned his family's middle-class values. From 1921 to 1927, he served with the Indian Imperial Police in Burma, a job he loathed, and after he resigned he devoted himself to learning to write, first in England, then in Paris, where he began to publish articles on social issues under the pen name of George Orwell. All his life, Orwell was aware of and outraged by poverty and unemployment and the inequities of the oppressive English class system. Impoverished himself, he worked in the kitchen of a Paris hotel, out of which came his memoir, DOWN AND OUT IN PARIS AND LONDON. He wrote several novels during this period--the first to be published was A CLERGYMAN'S DAUGHTER in 1935--as well as his classic study of Yorkshire coal miners, THE ROAD TO WIGAN PIER (1937). (Later in life, Orwell commented, "Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic Socialism...") Orwell fought with the antifascists in the Spanish Civil War, detailing his experiences in HOMAGE TO CATALONIA (1938), and during World War II he wrote for the BBC. He is credited with coining the expression "cold war." Orwell's scathing political satire, ANIMAL FARM, was published after the war, in 1945. His first wife also died that year, and he and his son moved to the island of Jura off the Scottish coast, where Orwell wrote his most famous and influential novel, 1984, which was published in 1949. He remarried shortly after, but in 1950 he died of the tuberculosis that had long plagued him.