|The "father of psychoanalysis" is forever associated with the city of Vienna, where he grew up, wrote, saw patients, and worked out his majestic theories, which became influential worldwide. The son of a merchant, and descended from a line of rabbis, Freud got his doctorate in medicine from the University of Vienna in 1881. After working in a psychiatric hospital, he received a grant to study with Jean Martin Charcot in Paris. In the 1880s, Freud established a working relationship with Joseph Breuer, used hypnosis to treat patients, worked on his research, and published his theories. He also experimented with cocaine, married Martha Bernays, and started a family of three sons and three daughters, including Anna who was to become a child psychologist of great note. In 1891 Freud moved to Berggasse 19, the address that was to become famous as his living quarters and office, and by then he was establishing a reputation in the field. In 1895, he and Breuer published STUDIES ON HYSTERIA, and Freud underwent an intense self-analysis. He published his seminal work, THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS, in 1899, and opened up his home to a growing circle that included Alfred Adler. In 1909 Freud made his only visit to America, addressing an audience at Clark University in Massachusetts. He began a close association with Carl Jung that lasted until 1913. In the second decade of the century, Freud refined his theories, presented papers and lectures, and spread his discipline to the world. He was diagnosed with throat cancer in 1923, and his 70th birthday in 1926 marked a turning point in his productivity, though he produced many fascinating papers into the 1930s. By then he was an important figure in the world, and was awarded the prestigious Goethe Prize for literature in 1930. In 1938, the Germans invaded Austria and annexed it. Freud and his family emigrated from Austria to England, where he died of throat cancer the following year.