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Combinatorics as a branch of mathematics studies the arts of counting. Enumeration occupies the foundation of combinatorics with a large range of applications not only in mathematics itself but also in many other disciplines. It is too broad a task to write a book to show the deep development in every corner from this aspect. This monograph is intended to provide a unified theory for those related to the enumeration of maps. For enumerating maps the first thing we have to know is the sym? metry of a map. Or in other words, we have to know its automorphism group. In general, this is an interesting, complicated, and difficult problem. In order to do this, the first problem we meet is how to make a map considered without symmetry. Since the beginning of sixties when Tutte found a way of rooting on a map, the problem has been solved. This forms the basis of the enumerative theory of maps. As soon as the problem without considering the symmetry is solved for one kind of map, the general problem with symmetry can always, in principle, be solved from what we have known about the automorphism of a polyhedron, a synonym for a map, which can be determined efficiently according to another monograph of the present author [Liu58].