|After completing his education at Shrewsbury School and St. John's College, Cambridge, Samuel Butler quarreled with his father about his desire to become an artist rather than follow his father into the clergy. The result was that in 1859 he sailed for New Zealand to become a sheep farmer. When he returned to England in 1864, he had doubled his capital and published a popular memoir called "A First Year in Canterbury Settlement". Taking up residence in Clifford's Inn, Butler was now resolved to become a painter, writing only infrequent articles on religious and scientific topics. In 1872, EREWHON, his first work of fiction, appeared and, although published under a pseudonym, its success began to overshadow Butler's career as an artist. His next publication, "The Fair Haven", was a book of religious skepticism. Over the following years he became identified with ideas antithetical to Darwin and various aspects of religious thinking. He also wrote on his travels in Italy, on art, on Shakespeare, and produced lively translations of the ILIAD and the ODYSSEY, accompanied by his theory that the ancient poems were written by a woman. His final book, THE WAY OF ALL FLESH, is an autobiographical work that had occupied him on and off throughout his literary career but was finally published, posthumously, in 1903.