|Frank O'Connor was the pseudonym of Michael Francis O'Donovan, who was born into poverty in County Cork. He left school at 12; by the age of 20 he was in prison for his political activities. Afterwards he became a teacher of Irish--he believed passionately in keeping the language alive--and a librarian; he also worked in theatre, and became a vital part of the literary and political worlds of Dublin in he 1930s. He wrote short stories, novels, biography, journalism, poetry, criticism, plays, and translations from Gaelic. Censored in Ireland for his radical politics, he came to America in 1959, returning home in 1961. He died five years later of a stroke.