|After growing up along the coast of California, Kim Stanley Robinson graduated from the University of California with a B.A in 1974, and Boston University with an M.A. in 1975, and began work on his Ph.D., which he received from the University of California at San Diego in 1982. Studying the works of sf master Philip K. Dick-- author of many classic novels including DO ANDROIDS DREAM OF ELECTRIC SHEEP?, which was the basis for the film BLADE RUNNER--Robinson's Ph.D. thesis was widely praised and eventually published, with some revisions, in 1984 as THE NOVELS OF PHILIP K. DICK. It remains one of the most essential analyses of Dick's complex career. Following this success, Robinson began work on what was to become his Three Californias trilogy. The first novel, his debut, THE WILD SHORE, was selected to flagship title in the new series of Ace Special Editions--an enormously influential and respected series of books that had begun in the 1960s before dying out in the late '70s--and was released to great acclaim. It, along with its sequels THE GOLD COAST and PACIFIC EDGE, comprise a future history of the Orange County region of California after a nuclear war. With several stand-alone works and short story collections in between, and with his work showing a marked interest in environmental concerns, Robinson then began the Mars trilogy--RED MARS, GREEN MARS, and BLUE MARS--which tracks the history of humankind's terraforming and eventual colonization of Mars. This series netted Robinson one Nebula Award, two Hugo Awards, among others, a slew of nominations, and almost uniformly excellent reviews. During his research for the Mars series, Robinson spent an extended period of time in Antarctica on a writer's grant, visiting with scientists who had helped him in earlier research and generally getting the feel of one of the last true frontiers on planet Earth. This experience lead him to write the novel ANTARCTICA, a near-future novel in which the struggles of individual men and women echo a complex corporate battle over the last of the Earth's natural resources. His work, frequently infused with ecological concerns and attention to character, was distinguished early on from contemporary trends of sf--at the time of his first novel, cyberpunk was coming into vogue. Nevertheless, his writing has placed him among the ranks of America's most respected and influential sf writers.