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Major art movements and artists of nineteenth-century Europe, from the French Revolution to World War I, are presented alphabetically in a dictionary format. Artists and art movements are integrated within the politics and culture of the times. An examination of the prominent authors, politicians, rulers, writers, and musicians, who often posed for artists provides an historical background against which to study these famous, obscure, traditional, and avant-garde artists. Entries include the artists' models, many of whom became romantically involved with the artists, and the artworks in which the models appear. This focus on the European continent, rather than on one specific country, surveys the interconnected influences and politics that pervaded the lives of the artists during this age when Europe was powerful culturally and politically, and helps to explain the various art movements, such as the Neo-Classical, Romantic, Realist, Impressionist, Fauvist, Cubist, Expressionist, and Abstract, that consequently evolved. Art history scholars, artists, and anyone with an interest in European art and politics will appreciate the organization and detail of this comprehensive volume. The alphabetical entries, coupled with straightforward and accessible writing, make this reference both informative and engaging. As a research tool, entries are cross-referenced, and a bibliography provides a useful guide to further research.