|C?line was educated in Paris, Germany, and England. He worked his way through university as a clerk and errand boy, and was briefly a goldsmith. He qualified as a doctor in 1924, was married twice, and had a daughter. After serving in the World War I cavalry, he practiced medicine most of his life. His first novel, JOURNEY TO THE END OF THE NIGHT, about World War I and its aftermath from the point of view of a young doctor, was published in 1932 and made his reputation as a great new voice in French literature. He worked as a doctor for the League of Nations, as well as in Germany and Denmark during World War II, publishing two pamphlets advocating appeasement and agreeing with Hitler about the Jews. He served one year in prison for collaborating with the Germans, but was pardoned in 1951; C?line was more a sympathizer than an actual collaborator, and in 1957 he published CASTLE TO CASTLE, a blackly comic satire about collaborators. Despite his controversial politics, C?line is valued as an important experimental writer.