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The contributors to this book argue that the events of 9/11 and the "war on terror" are having a significant transformative impact on European foreign and security policy. This is demonstrated through an analysis of changes in the attitudes of EU officials and politicians towards the laws and norms governing the use of force and through an analysis of changes in strategies towards the Balkans, sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and the United States. The impact of the "war on terror" on EU military affairs is highlighted. It is argued that since 9/11 there has been a widening, deepening, and "securitisation" of European foreign and security policy. The widening is reflected in a broader EU commitment to crisis management and postwar reconstruction at the global level, which at times takes the form of "state building." The deepening is represented by the emergence of groups of EU countries, so called vanguards, leading in foreign and security policy issues and in EU military affairs. For the first time in its history, the EU Council has also endorsed a notion of threats that is contributing to a process of "securitisation" of aspects of EU internal and external policies.