|Martin Buber was born in Vienna and raised in what is now the Ukraine by his paternal grandfather, Salomon Buber, a noted Hebrew scholar. Exposed to his rich religious and cultural heritage at a young age, Buber absorbed the mystical tradition of Hasidism, which inspired his later religious, existentialist writings. Between 1897 and 1904, he studied philosophy and art history at universities in Vienna, Leipzig, Zurich, and Berlin, receiving his Ph.D. in German mysticism at the University of Vienna in 1904. He held the only chair in Jewish philosophy at a German university between 1923 and 1933, in Frankfurt, until he was named director of Jewish adult education, a post he held until his exile to Palestine in 1938. In Jerusalem, he was a professor of social philosophy at Hebrew University until 1951. As a student, Buber had become involved in Theodor Herzl's Zionist movement, and continued to promote its cause until the founding of the state of Israel in 1948. Though Buber is perhaps best known for the religious philosophy he expounded in such works as "I and Thou", he was a prolific translator, translating a range of material from little-known Hasidic works to the entire Hebrew Bible, into modern German. Buber received various honorary degrees and literary prizes, including a nomination for the Nobel Prize in literature in 1949.