Hermann Hesse grew up in Calw, Wurttemberg, and Basel, Switzerland. His father was a missionary and publisher, and his maternal grandfather was a publisher in Calw. He attended a seminary briefly as a young man, and was an apprentice clockmaker and bookseller before devoting himself full time to his writing in 1903. Hesse served as a volunteer in the German foreign service in Switzerland during the First World War, but he reclaimed the Swiss citizenship of his childhood in 1923. He underwent psychoanalysis from 1916 to 1918 and that experience had a profound effect on his writing. Hesse moved to Montagnola, Switzerland (near Lugano) in 1919 and lived there until his death. The winner of the Nobel Prize in literature in 1946, Hesse was a leading voice of pacifism in the German-speaking world throughout his adult life, and his works were blacklisted in Germany under the Third Reich. In the years after his death in 1962, his works, many of which had not been translated into English before, became popular with the youth of the United States, who identified themes in his books which were relevant to many of the changes taking place in the U.S. during the late 1960s and 1970s.